The combination of energy storage and photovoltaic system has become an important means for users to reduce electricity bills, improve power supply reliability and reduce environmental pollution. Campus micro-grid, island optical storage, industrial and commercial users side optical storage system application has become the global key application direction in 2017, global Distributed optical storage systems are widely used.
On May 31 this year, the National Development and Reform Commission issued the "Notice on Matters Related to Photovoltaic Power Generation in 2018". The subsidy standards and PV indicators were tightened, and PV companies urgently sought "energy storage exports."
Throughout foreign policy findings, the application of large-scale optical storage incentives comes from three aspects: first, policy support; second, the cost of photovoltaic systems is declining, and subsidies for online subsidies are weakened; third, the electricity market is gradually opening up, and renewable energy subsidies are passed on, The cost of electricity for users is increased. These factors have stimulated industrial and commercial users and residents to use energy storage systems to increase economic value and reduce dependence on the grid.
Germany: Prosperity of light storage under financial support
As early as 2013, in order to support the construction of photovoltaic energy storage system projects, Germany has established a photovoltaic energy storage subsidy policy support plan, which provides 30% of the investment subsidies for household energy storage equipment. Initially, PV operators must be required to 60% of the electricity generated is sent to the grid.
In 2016, Germany began to implement a new optical storage subsidy policy, which will continue until the end of 2018, and plans to provide subsidies for energy storage units installed with grid-connected photovoltaic power generation systems, but only allow 50% of the peak power of photovoltaic systems. Feed back to the grid, which is very different from the requirement that the optical storage system to feed the grid. This also indicates that in the stage of large-scale development of renewable energy, encouraging self-use and marginal access to the Internet becomes a new requirement for distributed energy.
In October 2016, KfW had to terminate this subsidy, mainly because the support funds had been exhausted as early as 2016. At the same time, the government also confirmed that from July 1, 2017, the subsidy will be reduced from 19% of the total investment support to 16% as planned, and will be further reduced by 3% from October 1, and will be reduced as a whole from 2018. 10%.
In addition, large-scale guarantee subsidies promoted the extraordinary development of Germany's new energy industry, but at the same time it also pushed up the electricity price, and ultimately it was borne by electricity consumers. The retail price of electricity in Germany also came from 14 Euro cents/kW in 2000. When it rose to about 29 Euro cents/kWh in 2013, the people's share of renewable energy sharing increased significantly, and the policy's “over-support” gradually changed to “moderate support”. Factors such as the rapid decline in energy storage system costs, the reduction in PV subsidy prices, the rising retail electricity prices, and the continued support of household energy storage installation subsidies have driven the development of the German household optical storage market, and have become self-sufficient. The inevitable choice of the user.
United States: Tax Relief
In the United States, in addition to good natural conditions in some areas, energy storage funding support policies and high electricity bills, some other factors are also stimulating the combination of optical storage systems.
Initially, the Investment Tax Credit (ITC) is a tax reduction policy introduced by the government to encourage green energy investment. PV projects can be taxed at 30% of the investment amount. The accelerated cost depreciation is a taxation guide issued by the US Taxation Bureau. The photovoltaic system built after December 31, 2005 can adopt the accelerated cost depreciation method, that is, the depreciation of fixed assets is gradually reduced according to the equipment years.
In 2016, the American Energy Storage Association submitted an ITC bill to the US Senate, clarifying that advanced energy storage technologies can apply for investment tax credits, and can operate in an independent manner or in the form of microgrids and renewable energy power generation systems.
In order to promote the coordinated development of energy storage and renewable energy, the policy also requires that 75% of the energy stored in the energy storage system must come from renewable energy to enjoy ITC support. This support ratio is 30% of the system investment. This support ratio will fall to 10% in 2022. When the energy storage system stores between 75% and 99% of renewable energy, it can enjoy some ITC support. Only when the energy storage system is fully charged by renewable energy can ITC support be fully realized.
At the same time, energy storage systems without renewable energy support can use seven years of cost-accelerated depreciation, which is equivalent to a 25% reduction in capital costs, while energy storage systems using renewable energy charging ratios below 50% have not ITC supports the standard, but still enjoys the same cost-accelerated depreciation support. Energy storage systems above 50% can use accelerated depreciation for five years, equivalent to a 27% reduction in capital costs.
Japan: Optical storage applications in the open electricity market
In the case of power shortages and rising electricity prices caused by the abandonment of nuclear power, Japan has also embarked on a new round of power system reform, with the goal of directly pointing to the safe and stable supply of electricity and curbing the growth of electricity prices.
In the fall of 2014, Japan’s five major power companies had suspended the acquisition of photovoltaic power due to the overwhelming momentum of solar power projects. To solve this problem, the Japanese government supported renewable energy power generation companies to introduce energy storage batteries to subsidize power companies to carry out centralized regenerative The energy is equipped with demonstration projects for energy storage to reduce the wind/light rate and ensure the stability of the grid operation.
In 2015, the Japanese government allocated a total of 74.4 billion yen to subsidize solar or wind power generation companies that install energy storage batteries.
In fact, Japan started the photovoltaic fixed-grid tariff policy as early as 2012, which greatly promoted the rapid development of the domestic PV market in Japan.
However, the implementation of renewable energy acquisition system and fixed on-grid tariffs has also brought new problems. On the one hand, over-construction and grid-connected solar photovoltaics have brought pressure to the stable operation of the grid. Power grid companies have to require independent photovoltaic generators to assemble. Some battery energy storage systems to improve the stability of the grid; on the other hand, the cost of renewable energy power generation subsidies is added to the electricity bill, which also increases the burden on the nationals. To this end, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan has reformed the renewable energy purchase system and the fixed on-grid tariff mechanism, and adjusted the way to determine the purchase price of renewable energy from the perspective of cost, and decided to adopt the inter-enterprise bidding decision and set the medium and long-term. The development goal of the purchase price has clarified the timetable for price reduction of the on-grid price. The continuous reduction of subsidies for photovoltaic Internet access and the increase in the price of electricity sold in the near future will motivate users to increase the level of self-use of photovoltaics. Energy storage is also an important means to improve the economic benefits of users.
China: an important support for integrated energy projects
Compared with the process of opening up the electricity market in foreign countries for 30 years, China's "30-year power market reform" is still progressing in an orderly manner. In theory, it has already possessed certain technical conditions and market environment for the application of large-scale optical storage. On the one hand, “selling electricity across the wall” opens up the possibility of trading in surplus distributed energy regions, and the inter-user transactions under the open electricity market can be realized; on the other hand, photovoltaic power subsidies are regressing significantly, and the extra-policy gains are urgently sought, and current users The willingness to weaken the dependence on the grid is also relatively prominent.
In addition, the “Trial Measures for Advancing Grid-Connected Microgrid Construction” clearly states that the installed capacity of renewable energy in the grid-connected microgrid should exceed 50%, and the annual exchange capacity of the microgrid and the external grid generally does not exceed the annual electricity consumption. 50%. With the support of demonstration projects, it is necessary to ensure the high permeability of renewable energy and increase the proportion of volatility renewable energy access to the distribution network. At the same time, in the case of large-scale utilization of renewable energy, it is necessary to ensure self-use as much as possible to form the internal height of the system. The "autonomous" capability will inevitably introduce the application of energy storage technology.
At present, energy storage has become an indispensable technical support in China's comprehensive energy demonstration projects. The weakening of the electricity price mechanism and the support of photovoltaic funds policy driven by the open electricity market has stimulated the shift of market attention and stimulated photovoltaic and energy storage. The possibility of collaborative application. At this stage, the existence of cross-subsidization and the limitations of residential building energy consumption can not stimulate the supporting application of residential users' side energy storage. However, as the cost of optical storage technology decreases, the application value of industrial and commercial users' side optical storage will appear. It is hoped that the development and application of China's optical storage will be promoted based on the market-based price mechanism and trading mechanism.
In the future, China's optical storage supporting development and application will also benefit from the current policy decline and the deep opening of the future market.
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